The Normans in the Mediterranean


The first Norman rulers


    The concession of the first Norman county, Aversa, by Sergius IV of Naples to Rainolf Drengot in 1030, and recognition of the constitution of Melfi by the Lombard Guaimar IV of Salerno to William de Hauteville, known as Iron-Arm, in 1042, marked the end of the itinerant epoch of the Norman presence in southern Italy and the success of two families: the Drengots and especially the Hautevilles.

The Normans were now ready to change their way of living, and even if would not be the same for each count, they would leave behind them their uncertain status as mercenaries. The permanent nature of this situation was confirmed in 1062, when Richard of Aversa, Rainolf Drengot’s successor, declared himself at the head of Capua when he expelled the last Lombard prince, Pandulf IV.


Rainulf I of Aversa
1036: Normans and Byzantines allied in Sicily
Anarchy in Apulia
William Iron Arm and the Normans in Melfi
Rainulf II Trincanocte of Aversa and Drogo de Hauteville
The Normans at Capua

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