|The Normans in the Mediterranean|
|The destiny of Norman Italy|
In the period from the death of Frederick II (1250) until the end of the 15th century, two other European dynasties dominated power in southern Italy. In 1266, Charles of Anjou defeated the king of Sicily, Manfred of Swabia, at Benevento and thus the fleurs-de-lis flew over Naples and Palermo. However, in 1282, Sicily rebelled, proclaiming Peter III of Aragon king of Sicily. The House of Anjou still held Naples and the Mezzogiorno mainland, but after numerous vicissitudes the Angevin dynasty came to an end in Naples, even though René of Anjou, expelled by Alphonse V of Aragon, in 1442, kept the title of king of Sicily until 1480.
Aragonese domination lasted for about another fifty years, interrupted by the arrival of Charles VIII, king of France, who deposed Ferdinand II from power in Naples in 1495. But after the retreat of the French king from Italian soil, the kingdom, once that of Roger II, came under the domination of the emperor Charles Quint - Charles V (1500-1558).